Location: China in the south and India to the remaining sides
Area: 147, 181 km2
Population: around 26.5 million per 2011 census
Official Language: Nepali
Time Zone: NPT (UTC+5:45)
Currency: Nepalese Rupee (NPR)
Religion: Hindu, Buddhist, Christians, Muslims and others
Topography: World's deepest gorge “Kali Gandaki” to the highest point on earth, Mt. Everest (8848 m)
Nepal, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is located in south Asia between the Tibetan Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China in the north and Republic of India to the east, west and south. Nepal is a landlocked country and falls in the temperate zone north of the Tropic of Cancer. With an area of 147, 181 km2, Nepal is the 93rd largest country in the world by land mass and 41st most populous country in the world. Geographically Nepal is divided into three regions: Himalayan Region, Hilly Region and The Terai Region. Mt. Everest (8848 m) is the highest point of the country while Kechana Kalan (60 m) is the lowest.
Nepal lies in the Himalayas and is known to the world by the highest mountain in the world, Mt. Everest. The mountainous north of the country is covered by enormous snow-capped mountains with a cold alpine climate; alpine pastures and temperate forests limited by the tree line and snow line and consist of eight of the world’s ten tallest mountains: Mt. Everest (8848 m), Kanchenjunga (8586 m), Lhotse (8516 m), Makalu (8485 m), Cho Yu (8188 m), Dhaulagiri (8167 m), Manaslu (8163 m) and Annapurna I (8091 m). Because of these enormous mountains and the surroundings hilly regions, hundreds and thousands of thrill seeking travelers visit Nepal for mountaineering, climbing, trekking, hiking, paragliding and sightseeing of the Himalayan ranges by helicopter and airplanes.
A number of UNESCO world heritage and cultural sites are located in Nepal. 7 cultural heritage sites – Kathmandu Durbar Square, Lalitpur Durbar Square, Bhaktapur Durbar Square, Pashupatinath, Swoyambhunath, Bouddhanath and Changu Narayan are located within 20km of Kathmandu. Nepal’s heritage is alive and always dynamic. Many temples, shrines, monuments and monasteries are always filled with devotees . Nepal is also the only country that has living goddess named as Kumari. Nepal is also known to the world as the birthplace of Lord Buddha. Lumbini, which lies at the Terai region of Nepal, is the holiest and spiritual site for the Buddhist of all over the world. Many Buddhists pilgrims from different parts of the world visit Lumbini every year to see archaeologically proven art and architecture with spiritual belief. The Himalayan country is rich in bio diversity and homes to a wide variety of floras and faunas. It also provide homes to various endangered species like One horned Rhinoceros, Royal Bengal Tiger, Snow Leopard, Red Panda, Gangetic Dolphin, Wild Yak, Tibetan Antelope, Musk Deer, Gharial and many others.
Tribhuvan International Airport is the only international airport in Nepal. Many international airlines provide its service to and from Kathmandu. The main airlines that serve Kathmandu are: Nepal Airlines, Emirates, Etihad Airways, Qatar Air, Thai Airways, Silk Air, Korean Air, Dragon Air, Gulf Air, Malaysian Airlines, Air Asia, Fly Dubai, Druk Air, Indian Airlines, Jet Air, Biman Bangladesh, China Southern, Air China and many others.
Nepal is surrounded by India and Tibet. So there are many entry points to Nepal from India and a single entry point to Nepal from Tibet. The main crossing points from India are Nepalgunj, Birgung, Mahendranagar, Dhangadi, Kakarvitta and Sunauli. Kodari is the only way to cross from Tibet.
There are four seasons in Nepal
Climatic condition in Nepal differs from one place to another according to geographical features. In the Himalayas and the high hilly regions the summer are cool and the winters is cool. But in the lower hilly region and the Terai region, summers are hot and humid and tropical and winter is mild. Primarily Nepal has four seasons: Winter, spring, summer and the autumn.
In the mountainous regions and the hilly regions summers are temperate around 28° while winter temperature can easily reach zero degrees. In Terai, summer temperature can easily exceed 37°. In Kathmandu valley, the temperature ranges from 19° to 34° in summer and 1° to 18° in the winter.
Spring and the Autumn are the pleasant seasons and they are regarded as the best time for trekking in Nepal.
According to the census of 2011 conducted by Central Bureau of Statistics Nepal, the total population of Nepal was around 26.5 millions. The census also enumerated 102 ethnic groups speaking over 92 languages. Although there are so many languages being spoken in Nepal, the official language of Nepal is Nepali which is widely spoken and understood by majority of the population.
To the north of the country at the Himalayan region, there are Tibetan speaking groups – Sherpas, Lopas, Dolpo-pas, Baragoanlis and Manangis. They are divided according to the geographical regions. Generally Sherpas are found in the Solu and the Khumbu Regions while Baragoanlis and Lopas are found in the deserted areas of Upper and Lower Mustang. Manangis lived at Manang district and Dolpo-pas lived at the Dolpa district of Nepal.
Many several ethnic groups are found at the hilly region and valleys. These include Brahmins, Chhetris, Thakuris, Newars, Thakalis, Gurungs, Tamangs and many others. It is believed that the ancestors of the Brahmins and Chhetris came from India while other ethnic group believes their origin to be central Asia as well as Tibet.Terai region holds various ethnic groups as well like Tharus, Majhi, Kumal and many others.